Sejarah

Sejarah Mula Kerajaan Bali Kuno Dan Nama-Nama Raja Bali

Bali merupakan daerah di wilayah indonesia yang sangat terkenal akan adat dan kebudayaanya di dunia. Dan merupakan salah satu tempat wisata paling populer dindonesia bahkan dunia. Adat dan kebudayaan tersebut merupakan warisan kebudayaan dari kerajaan bali kuno. Hal ini bisa di lihat dari bangunan,tarian,adat dan culture masyarakat bali sekarang.

1. Kehidupan Politik kerajaan bali kuno

Berita tertua mengenai Bali bersumber dari Bali sendiri, yakni berupa beberapa buah cap kecil dari tanah liat yang berukuran 2,5 cm yang ditemukan di Pejeng, Bali. Cap tersebut dibuat pada abad ke-8 M. Adapun prasasti tertua di Bali berangka tahun 882 M, memberitakan perintah membuat pertapaan dan pasanggrahan di Bukit Kintamani. Di dalam prasasti tersebut tidak ditulis nama raja yang memerintah pada masa itu. Demikian juga prasasti yang berangka tahun 911 M yang isinya memberikan izin kepada penduduk Desa Trunyaan untuk membangun tempat suci bagi pemujaan Bhattara da Tonta.

Munculnya Kerajaan Bali kuno diketahui dari Prasasti Blanjong (Sanur) yang berangka tahun 914 M. Tulisan Prasasti dengan huruf Pranagari dan Kawi dan bahasa Bali Kuno dan Sanskerta. Raja Bali perdana adalah Kesari Warmadewa. Ia tingal dan memerintah di Istana Singhadwala dan merupakan pendiriri Dinasti Warmadewa. Raja singhadwal tidak memerintah lama hannya sekitar dua tahun, Kesari Warmadwa kemudian di gantikan oleh Ugrasena (915–942). Jika di lihat dari tahun dia memerintah raja ini sezaman dengan pemerintahan Empu Sendok yang berasal dari keluarga Isana di Jawa Timur. Pada masa pemerintahan Raja Ugrasena ia menbangun sembilan prasasti yang berisi tentang pembebasan pajak untuk daerah-daerah tertentu.

Setelah raja Ugrasena meninggal ia di gantikan Raja Aji Tabanendra Warmadewa yang memerintah antara 955 sampai 967m. Dalam menjalankan pemerintahannya ia di bantu oleh permaisurinya yang bernama Sri Subadrika Dharmadewi. Penggantinya Jaya- singha Warmadewa (968–975). Rajajaya singha warmadewa membangun sebuah pemandian dari sebuah mata air yang ada di Desa Manukaya. Pemandian itu disebut Tirtha Mpul yang terletak di dekat Tampaksiring.

Raja Jayasingha digantikan oleh Janasadhu Warmadewa (975–983). Pada tahun 983 muncul seorang raja wanita yang bernama Sri Maharaja Sri Wijaya Mahadewi. Pengganti Sri Wijaya Mahadewi adalah Udayana War- madewa. Ia memerintah bersama permaisurinya, yaitu Gunapriya Dharmapatni yang lebih dikenal sebagai Mahendradatta. Udayana meme- rintah bersama permaisurinya sampai dengan tahun 1001 M karena pada tahun itu Mahendradatta meninggal. Udayana meneruskan pemerintahannya sampai dengan tahun 1011 M.

Raja Udayana mempunyai tiga orang putra, yakni Airlangga, Marakata, dan Anak Wungsu. Airlangga tidak pernah memerintah di Bali sebab menjadi menantu Dharmamangsa di Jawa Timur. Oleh karena itu, setelah Udayana meninggal, takhtanya digantikan oleh Marakata. Setelah naik takhta, Marakarta memakai gelar Dharmawangsawardhana Marakata Pangkaja- sthana Uttunngadewa. Masa pemerintahan Marakata sezaman dengan Airlangga (1011–1022 M). Ia dianggap sebagai kebenaran hukum yang selalu memerhatikan dan melindungi rakyatnya. Oleh karena itu, Marakata disegani dan ditaati oleh rakyatnya.

Pengganti Marakata adalah Anak Wungsu. Anak Wungsu merupakan Raja Bali yang paling banyak meninggalkan prasasti, yakni ada kurang lebih 28 buah prasasti dan tersebar di Bali Utara, Bali Tengah, dan Bali Selatan. Anak Wungsu berhasil memegang tampuk pemerintah di Bali selama 28 tahun (1049–1077). Semasa pemerintahannya, ia berhasil mewujudkan kerajaan yang aman, damai, dan sejahtera. Penganut agama Hindu dapat hidup berdampingan dengan agama Buddha. dia menbangun sebuah kompleks percandian di Gunung Kawi (sebelah selatan Tam- paksiring) yang merupakan peninggalan terbesar di Bali. Masa pemeritah- annya yang gemilang, Anak Wungsu dianggap oleh rakyatnya sebagai penjilman Dewa Hari (Dewa Kebaikan). Setelah meninggal, Anak Wungsu didharmakan di Candi Gunung Kawi

Wungsu tidak meninggalkan putra. Permisurinya dikenal dengan nama Batari Mandul. Raja yang memerintah setelah Anak Wungsu yang terkenal adalah Jayasakti yang memerintah 1133–1150 M. Masa pemerin- tahan Jayasakti sezaman dengan Raja Jayabaya di Kediri. Pada saat itu agama Buddha, Siwaisme, dan Waisnama ber- kembang dengan baik. Raja Jayasakti disebut sebagai penjilmaan Dewa Wisnu. Sebagai seorang raja yang bijaksana, ia memerintah kerajaan berdasarkan pada hukum keadilan dan kemanusiaan. Kitab undang-undang yang berlaku pada masa pemerintahannya ialah Utara Widdhi Balawan dan Raja Wacana atau Rajaniti.

Raja Bali yang terkenal lainnya adalah Jayapangus . Ia memerintah antara 1177–1181 M. Raja Jayapangus dianggap sebagai penyelamat rakyat yang terkena malapetaka karena melalaikan ibadah. Jayapangus menerima wahyu dari Dewa untuk mengajak rakyat kembali melakukan upacara rital agama yang sampai sekarang dikenal dan diperingati sebagai upacara Galungan. Kitab undang-undang yang digunakan sebagai pedoman masa pemerintahannya ialah kitab Mana Wakamandaka.

Setelah Jayapangus, Bali diperintah oleh raja-raja yang lemah. Bali kemudian berhasil ditaklukan oleh Gajah Mada dan menjadi wilayah kekuasaan Majapahit.

2. Kehidupan Sosial Ekonomi kerajaan bali kuno

Struktur masyarakat yang berkembang pada masa Kerajaan Bali Kuno, sesuai dengan kebudayaan Hindu di India, yaitu pada awalnya diwarnai dengan sistem kasta yang disebut caturwarna. Untuk masyarakat yang berada di luar kasta disebut budak atau njaba.

Selain itu, ada hal yang menarik dalam sistem keluarga di Bali yakni berkaitan dengan pemberian nama anak. Misalnya, Wayan, Made, Nyoman dan Ktut. Untuk anak pertama dari golongan brahmana dan kesatria disebut Putu.

Kehidupan perekonomian masyarakat dari Kerajaan Bali Kuno bertumpu pada pertanian. Beberapa istilah yang berkaitan dengan bercocok tanam, antara lain sawah, parlak (sawah kering), gaga (ladang), kebwan (kebun), dan kasuwakan (irigasi). Selain bercocok tanam, ada yang bekerja sektor di kerajinan. Mereka memiliki kepandaian membuat barang-barang kerajian dari emas dan perak, perlatan rumah tangga, dan alat-alat pertanian. Bahkan, ada memiliki kepandaian memahat dan melukis.

Kegiatan perdagangan pun, sudah cukup maju. Di beberapa desa terdapat golongan saudagar yang disebut wanigrama (saudagar laki-laki) dan wanigrami (saudagar perempuan). Mereka memiliki kepala atau pejabat yang mengurus kegiatan perdagangan yang disebut banigrama atau banigrami.

3. Kehidupan Budaya kerajaan bali kuno

Masuknya kebudayaan Hindu–Buddha ke Bali, ber- pengaruh besar pada masyarakatnya. Sampai saat ini mayoritas penduduk Bali menganut agama Hindu. Agama Hindu di Bali telah bercampur dengan adat isti-adat setempat sehingga Hindu khas Bali disebut Hindu Dharma. Agama Buddha juga berkem-bang, meskipun tidak sepesat agama Hindu. Hal inidapat diketahui dari jumlah pe-danda (pendeta) agama Hindu (Siwa) yang bergelar dangacarrya lebih banyak dari pada pendeta Buddha yang bergelar dangupadhyaya. Agama Hindu dan Buddha dapat hidup berdampingan secara damai, menunjukkan adanya tolerasi yang tinggi dalam masyarakat Bali.

Di bidang budaya berkaitan dengan kehidupan keagamaan dapat dijumpai pada bangunan peninggalan masa kuno yang sampai sekarang masih dapat kita saksikan, seperti candi dan pura. Peninggalan bangunan candi, seperti Candi Padas di Gunung Kawi. Sebaliknya, untuk peninggalan pura di antaranya adalah Pura Agung Besakih.

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